At first glance they appear to be totally unrelated. However, on the examination of the history it has been revealed that they have a lot more in common than one would expect. We were taught in school that the year 1492 was the year that Columbus sailed the ocean blue. What we were not told is that it was also the year the king of Aragon was able to complete the expulsion of the Muslim caliphs from Al Andalusia (Spain), as well.
Mind you these Muslims were primarily from the African nations along the Northern Mediterranean, as well as West Africa proper. They came from the countries now known as Morocco, Mali, Mauritania, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Sudan, Egypt and even Ethiopia. Therefore, from all historical evidence we know for sure that a large majority of them were of the African racial type.
The occupation of Spain lasted for 700 years. During that time Spainish culture was alive and vibrant, while the cultures of Europe, as a whole were stagnant and dead, hence the name we've that era, the Dark Ages, meaning there was no significant learning or serious thought going on during that time.
Spain or as the Muslims called it Al Andalusia was just the opposite, with lit streets, indoor plumbing, aquaducts, courtyard fountains and magnificient architectural structures that remain among the most popular tourist attractions in the world. The University of Salamanca was the most prestigious institution of learning in the known world. Under the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate science and learning flourished, while the Dark Ages formed a cloud over Europe, where only the priestly class was even allowed, or enouraged to read. In fact, the same kinds of restrictions that were placed on African slaves in the U.S., following the rebellion of Nat Turner, were placed on the entire population of Europe, with punishments which were just as severe.
I'd like to note here that there was some evidence of the mechanical genius of the inhabitants of Europe that came out at that time, unfortunately, it seemed to be mostly in the area of torture. The implements of torture that were devised during this time for the use of the clergy in carrying out the Inquisition were truly ingenious. We've all heard of The Rack, thumbscrews, The Pear, The Iron Maiden, The Gibbet (gallows), The Whipping Post, Stocks, etc. Of course, we wouldn't want to forget the most humane instrument of death every devised, The Guillotine. These are inventions, which are wholly European and I believe unique in the annals of history.
The stated purpose of these Inquisitions as detailed in a 1578 handbook for inquisitors was: ... quoniam punitio non refertur primo & per se in correctionem & bonum eius qui punitur, sed in bonum publicum ut alij terreantur, & a malis committendis avocentur. [Translation from the Latin: "... for punishment does not take place primarily and per se for the correction and good of the person punished, but for the public good in order that others may become terrified and weaned away from the evils they would commit."] Note the use of the word terrified in describing the purpose of this practice.
TO BE CONTINUED